giovedì 27 ottobre 2016

The oddest taxes in history dating back to Georgian England.


Tutto il lusso sfrenato, tutta l'opulenza e lo sfarzo di cui diedero sfoggio i regnanti inglesi durante l'intero XVIII secolo, coniugato con le spese sostenute per le guerre, combattute soprattutto nelle colonie e nelle campagne napoleoniche, finirono, in quello che gli storici indicano come periodo Georgiano, con il collassare definitivamente le finanze dello stato, e quale mezzo più semplice da sempre esiste, per rimpinguare l'erario, se non imponendo tasse al popolo ? 



BEGGING no ROBBERY; i.e. Voluntary Contribution; or John Bull escaping a Forced Loan (1796) by James Gillray (1756-1815)



Ebbene, ai politici dell'epoca Georgiana va ascritto il merito di essere riusciti ad inventare una tassa per ogni oggetto di uso quotidiano ... tutto ciò che poteva essere soggetto ad imposta non sfuggì alla seppur minima tassazione !

Fu infatti istituita una tassa sul mattone - THE BRICK TAX - che prescriveva che venissero versati 4 scellini sull'acquisto di 1000 mattoni, al che, al fine di favorire i consumatori, talune fabbriche aumentarono le dimensioni dei mattoni che producevano - e la risposta del governo fu quella di fissare delle misure standard - e conseguentemente venne incrementato l'uso del legname come materiale edilizio ( va da sè che gran parte delle fabbriche furono così costrette al fallimento ); solamente nel 1850 tale tassazione venne abolita.


L'imposta sul vetro o GLASS EXCISE fu promulgata nel 1745 e rimase effettiva per un secolo esatto: ogni tipo di vetro era soggetto a tale dazio, da quello di una finestra a quello di una bottiglia e, mentre se dapprincipio l'onere gravava sulla quantità di materia prima utilizzata, dal 1811, dopo una decisa campagna promossa dalle industrie che producevano il vetro, la tassa venne applicata al prodotto finito, il che non era di notevole sgravio per i consumatori, essendo tutti gli oggetti in vetro dell'epoca Regency estremamente sottili, ma è anche vero che fu proprio durante questo periodo che acquistarono fama i pesanti vetri di cui erano fatte le ampie vetrate fatte di vetri molati colorati che decoravano le case tipiche dell'architettura del tempo e che divennero famose e ricercate in tutta l'Europa e che, ben comprendiamo, quindi, non tutti potevano permettersi; una casa luminosa, una serra in cui conservare verdure coltivate fuori stagione, etc., divennero esclusivo appannaggio dei più abbienti.

THE DUTY ON HAIR POWDER ACT o tassa sulla polvere per capelli del 1795 imponeva che chiunque utilizzasse della polvere per capelli ( che serviva per tenere in ordine le parrucche ) dovesse, a partire dal 5 maggio 1795, entrare in un ufficio del bollo, far registrare il proprio nome e pagare un certificato annuale del costo di una ghinea; ovviamente da tale onere erano esenti i regnanti, i loro servi, i facenti parte la milizia, il clero, insomma, tutti coloro che da sempre vantavano privilegi. Con l'inizio del XIX secolo il venir meno dell'utilizzo della polvere per capelli segnò il definitivo declino di tale tassa che venne del tutto abrogata, perché riconosciuta ormai infruttuosa, nel 1869.


La tassa sulle candele o sulla cera d'api - CANDLE OR BEESWAX TAX -, forse tra le più bizzarre imposte in questo periodo, impediva dal 1709 la fabbricazione in casa di candele a meno che non si possedesse una licenza, per cui venne utilizzata una forma alternativa d'illuminazione che da tassazione era esente, ma che era anche molto poco efficace: dei giunchi ( rushes ) venivano immersi in grasso animale reso fluido dal calore e poi lasciati in esso indurire. Essi potevano essere accesi ad ambo le estremità, ma erano di brevissima durata.

Lo stesso anno vide l'approvazione anche di una tassa sul sale, sulle spezie, sul carbone trasportato via mare, sulla birra, sul malto e sul luppolo, sul pepe, sull'uvetta e sul tabacco da fiuto ( Stephen Dowell, A History of Taxation and Taxes in England, Vol. 4: From the Earliest Times to the Year 1885; Taxes on Articles of Consumption, Classic Reprint, Forgotten Books, 2016 )

E' datata 1797 la CLOCK AND WATCH TAX, ovvero l'imposta sugli orologi da parete e da polso, che fortunatamente ebbe una breve storia ( venne abrogata dopo solo nove mesi ), che prevedeva venissero versati al governo cinque scellini per ogni orologio presente in ogni immobile, anche all'interno di una casa privata, due scellini e sei pence per ogni orologio da tasca d'argento o di altro metallo, e dieci scellini per quelli d'oro.


L'imposta sul sapone - SOAP TAX - fu talmente gravosa, sia per i produttori che per gli acquirenti di tale bene, che esso venne 'promosso' a bene di lusso fino a metà del XIX secolo: buona parte dei produttori chiusero la propria fabbrica per continuare a produrre sapone all'estero e la povera gente cercava di lavarsi il meno possibile anche perché dal governo provenivano voci che vietavano di lavarsi, come se si trattasse di qualcosa di blasfemo !

Visto come un modo facile per fare denaro, che crea dipendenza ed evade ogni tassazione, il gioco delle carte associato al gioco d'azzardo venne individuato come uno dei bersagli di tale programma di gravame fiscale e fu così che venne introdotta anche la PLAYING CARD TAX, ossia l'imposta sulle carte da gioco: al fine di evitare l'evasione fiscale l'asso di picche veniva trattenuto dalle autorità doganali e rilasciato solo quando la casa produttrice di carte da gioco aveva pagato la suddetta tassa che, pensate, di tutte fu la più longeva, poiché non venne abrogata prima del 1960.


Introdotta in Gran Bretagna nel 1712 la tassa sulla carta da parati - WALLPAPER TAX - prometteva ingenti guadagni, visto che l'utilizzo della carta da parati come alternativa a basso costo all'arazzo o alla boiserie stava dilagando; tale imposta fu originariamente fissata ad un pence per iarda quadrata, importo che raggiunse uno scellino a partire dal 1809. Il modo di evadere legalmente questo onere era abbastanza semplice, era sufficiente ricorrere a delle decorazioni con stampini fatti su carta comune ed è perciò inutile dire che questa tassa ebbe una vita piuttosto breve, poiché fu abolita nel 1836.

Nel 1783 il governo britannico fissò un'imposta da pagarsi sui farmaci - MEDICINE TAX - qualora fossero stati venduti da chi non era chirurgo, speziale o farmacista. Nel 1812 ad essa venne sostituita la Medicine Stamp Act secondo cui l'imposta di bollo da pagare doveva essere necessariamente allegata alla confezione, qualora il preparato fosse realizzato senza seguire una ricetta ben nota ed era proporzionale al costo del farmaco, ovvero ammontava ad un pence e mezzo per ogni scellino.


Fu un tentativo fallito quello di imporre una tassa sulle parrucche, poiché esse divennero automaticamente tralasciate e considerate fuori moda, ma il governo aveva il suo asso nella manica, aveva già pensato ad una tassa sui cappelli - HAT TAX -: i cappelli dovevano essere venduti solamente da rivenditori autorizzati e recavano al loro interno una sorta di bollo che, su richiesta, doveva essere esibito, per cui mai doveva essere rimosso; il sovrapprezzo che veniva applicato su quello del cappello era ad esso proporzionale ed ovviamente, chi aveva più denaro e poteva permettersi un cappello per ogni occasione, era colui che maggior denaro versava all'erario. La Bonnet-Rouge; -or- John Bull evading the Hat Tax Gillray, James, 1849 ca (1756-1815)

Dato il successo economico rappresentato dalla tassa sui cappelli, varata nel 1784, nel bilancio dell'esercizio successivo William Pitt il Giovane decise di aggiungere una tassa anche sui guanti - TAX ON GLOVES -: egli propose che una marca da bollo fosse applicata ai guanti e che l'imposta dovesse essere pagata dal commerciante al dettaglio. A suo parere la vendita di guanti era al tempo decisamente elevata tanto che ciascuno possedeva almeno un paio di guanti e quindi 9.000.000 paia sarebbero stati acquistati ogni anno. Questo il sistema di tassazione che egli propose:
Un centesimo doveva essere aggiunto al prezzo di tutti i guanti che costavano sotto i dieci  pence, due pence a quelli che costavano da dieci a quindici pence e tre pence per tutti i guanti che costavano oltre quindici pence.
La sua stima era che l'ammontare delle entrate sarebbe stato di circa 50.000 £. Già dopo il primo anno non si realizzò il successo sperato e quando il governo realizzò che l'imposta stava generando un massimo di poco più di £ 6.000 all'anno, invece delle previste £ 50.000 nel marzo del 1794 tale imposta venne al fine abrogata.

Ma vi erano anche altre imposte, non crediate che fossero tutte qui !
Vi era la tassa sui giornali, sui profumi, sui cavalli a noleggio e per coloro che erano così facoltosi da possedere oggetti preziosi, argenterie, personale di servizio maschile e carrozze private erano previste tasse anche per questi agi.

Beh, tutto sommato l'esordio del XIX secolo fu  davvero un periodo piuttosto buio, da un punto di vista fiscale, fortuna che delle imposte che abbiamo visto, quelle che ancora non erano state abolite verranno abrogate durante il periodo vittoriano, poiché faceva parte della politica della Regina Victoria quello dell'alleggerimento fiscale, evviva !



 John Bull and the sinking fund - a Pretty scheme for reducing the Taxes & Paying-off the National Debt !, by James Gillray (1756-1815)





Spero vivamente che il vostro tempo trascorso in mia compagnia qui a ~ My little old world ~ oggi sia stato piacevole e che abbia rappresentato una gradevole evasione per ciascuno di voi, amici che vi trovate a passare di qui per la prima volta ed affezionati lettori e 'compagni di viaggio' ...

... a voi tutti giunga benaccetto il mio più caloroso abbraccio,

a presto 💕














All the unbridled luxury, all the opulence and splendor which the English kings, during the entire XVIIIth century, gave display of, married to the expenses incurred for the wars, fought primarily in the colonies and in the Napoleonic campaigns, ended in what historians indicate as Georgian period, with the definitive collapse of the state finances, and which is, since ever, the most simple way to replenish the treasury, if not by imposing taxes to the people?




- picture 1 - BEGGING no ROBBERY; i.e. Voluntary Contribution; or John Bull escaping a Forced Loan (1796) by James Gillray (1756-1815)



Well, at the Georgian era's politicians should be ascribed the merit of being able to invent a fee for each item of daily use ... all that could be subject to tax didn't escape at least the minimal taxation!

It was in fact instituted THE BRICK TAX which called to be paid 4 shillings on the purchase of 1,000 bricks, to which, in order to encourage consumers, some factories increased the size of the bricks they produced - and the response of government was to establish standard measures - and consequently was increased the use of wood as a building material (it goes without saying that most of the factories were thus forced into bankruptcy); only in 1850 this tax was abolished.


- picture 2 on the left - THE GLASS EXCISE - also known as Window Tax - was promulgated in 1745 and remained effective for exactly a century: each type of glass was subject to that duty, that of a window and that of a bottle and, while at first it was weighed the quantity of raw material used, since 1811, after a determined campaign promoted by the industries producing glass, the tax was applied to the finished product, which was not of great relief for consumers; all the glassware durng the Regency age were extremely thin, but it is also true that it was during this period that it  acquired fame  throughout the whole Europe the heavy panes of coloured cut glass with which the large windows that decorated the houses typical of the time were made of and we do well understand, then, that not everyone could afford them; a bright house, a greenhouse where to store and to grow vegetables out of season, etc., became an exclusive chance of the wealthy ranks.

THE DUTY ON HAIR POWDER ACT of 1795 required that anyone who would use the powder for hair (useful to keep in order wigs) had,  since May 5th, 1795, to enter a stamp office to register his name and pay an annual certificate of the cost of 1 guinea; of course there was who was exempt, such as rulers, their servants, those belonging to the militia, the clergy, in short, all those who have always boasted privileges. With the beginning of the XIXth century the disappearance of using wigs and thus of the powder for hair marked the final decline of this tax, which was repealed altogether, because now recognized unsuccessful, in 1869.


- picture 3 on the right - THE CANDLE or BEESWAX TAX, perhaps the most bizarre tax amongst all of this period, prevented since 1709 the manufacture of candles in the house without possessing a license, that's why people used a lighting alternative that was exempt from taxes, but that was also very inefficient: rushes were dipped in animal fat made fluid by heat and then let harden. They could be lit on at both ends, but they were of very short duration.

The same year saw the approval also of a tax on salt, on spices, on coal transported by sea, on beer, on malt and hops, on pepper, on raisins and snuff ( Stephen Dowell, A History of Taxation and Taxes in England, Vol. 4: From the Earliest Times to the Year 1885; Taxes on Articles of Consumption, Classic Reprint, Forgotten Books, 2016 )

it is dated 1797 THE CLOCK AND WATCH TAX, which fortunately had a short history (it was repealed after only nine months), which stipulated that 5 shillings were paid to the government for every clock in every building, even in a private house,  2 shillings and 6 pence for each pocket watch made of silver or any other metal, and 10 shillings for those of gold.


- picture 4 on the left - THE SOAP TAX was so burdensome, both for producers and for purchasers of that good, that it was 'promoted' to luxury item until the middle of the XIXth century; most of the manufacturers closed their factory to continue producing soap abroad and poor people tryied to wash themselves as little as possible also because from the government came rumors prohibiting to wash, as if it were something blasphemous!

Seen as an easy way to make money, which is addictive and avoiding any taxation, the playing-card game associated with gambling was identified as one of the targets of this program of taxation burden and so it was that it was introduced THE PLAYING CARD TAX: to avoid tax evasion the ace of spades was detained by customs authorities and released only when the manufacturer of playing cards had paid that fee that, think, of all those belonging to this age, was the longest-lived, because it wasn't repealed before than 1960.


- picture 5 on the right - Introduced in Britain in 1712 THE WALLPAPER TAX promised huge profits given the widespreading use of wallpapers chosen as a cheaper alternative to tapestry or to the 'boiserie'; this tax was originally set at 1 pence per square yard, amount that reached 1 shilling since 1809. The way to legally evade this charge was quite simple, it was enough to use stencils for making decorations on common paper and therefore it is needless to say that this tax had a rather short life, since it was abolished in 1836.

In 1783 the British government enacted THE MEDICINE TAX to be paid if the medicine was sold by who was not a surgeon, a chemist or a pharmacist. In 1812 it was replaced by the Medicine Stamp Act according to which the stamp duty had to be attached to the wrapping, if the medicine was prepared without following a known recipe and it was proportional to the cost of the drug, which amounted to 1,5 pence for each shilling.


- picture 6 on the left - It was a failed attempt that to impose a tax on wigs, because they became automatically disregarded and considered out of fashion, but the government had its ace in the hole, it had already thought of a HAT TAX: hats were to be sold only by authorized dealers and had to bore a kind of stamp duty within them which, on request, had to be shown, so it never had to be removed; the surcharge that was applied on hats was proportional to their price and of course, those who had more money and could afford a hat for every occasion, were those who poured more money to the Treasury. 

Given the economic success represented by the tax on hats, launched in 1784, in the following budget William Pitt the Younger decided to add also a TAX ON GLOVES: he proposed that a stamp had to be applied on the gloves and that the tax should be paid by the retailer. In his view the sale of gloves was at the time decisively high so that each had at least one pair of gloves and then 9,000,000 pairs were purchased each year. This is the taxation system which he proposed:
1 penny had to be added to the price of all the gloves that costed under 10 pence, 2 pence to those costing from 10 to 15 pence and 3 pence for all gloves that costed over 15 pence.
His estimate was that the amount of this duty would have been about £ 50,000. Already after the first year it wasn't realized the expected success and when the government admitted that the tax was generating a maximum of just over £ 6,000 a year instead of the planned £ 50,000 in March of 1794 this tax was repealed.

But there were also other taxes, don't think that they were all here!
There was the tax on newspapers, on perfumes, on horses for hire and for those who were so wealthy by owning precious objects, silver plates, male service personnel and private carriages taxes were provided also for these luxuries.

Well, all things considered,  the debut of the XIXth century was actually a rather dark period from a fiscal point of view, but of all the taxes that we have seen, those which had not yet been abolished, will be repealed during the Victorian period, since it was part of Queen Victoria's policy that of tax lightening, hooray !


- picture 7 - John Bull and the sinking fund - a Pretty scheme for reducing the Taxes & Paying-off the National Debt !, by James Gillray (1756-1815)




I sincerely hope that your time spent in my company here at ~ My little old world ~ today has been pleasant and that has been an amusing escape for each of you, friends that are passing by here for the first time and loyal readers and 'travel friends'... 

... may it be welcome to you all my warmest hug,



see you soon 💕








42 commenti:

  1. We smile at the past now, but I wonder what our future generations will say of us. :-)

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ The Yum List
      you're so heartily welcome !
      Actually yours is truly a sentence on which to think about ... the thing is that for sure during those times they didn't live in better conditions than us, poor people !

      Enjoy your weekend ahead,
      sending hugs & love to you, thank you ಌ❀ಌ

      Elimina
  2. Who would have thought of such taxes, Daniela? Wow, and people complain today about the taxes. They have no idea! LOL! Thank you so much for sharing this, I have learned something new today and enjoyed your images and music at the same time! Much love and hugs to you, dear friend. :)

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Linda
      my dearest, darling friend, this is a post which somehow put us all in high spirits, doesn't it, for things could really go worse !

      So overjoyed to welcome you and your enthusiasm today,
      I wish you all my best for the coming end of your week,
      may it be blessed with joy, cherished friend ❥

      Elimina
  3. my goodness! We shouldn't complain about our taxes today obviously... they aren't that bad. We learned about the glass tax when we were in England -- in some places, the windows were left blank or just with paper over them to avoid that tax.

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Sallie
      you're right, sweet friend, we shouldn't really !
      In England, in some Georgian buildings, we still can see windows 'closed' with a row of bricks and become walls inside, that's a memory of the WINDOW TAX, yes.

      Hope you're having the best of weeks
      I'm sending hugs and ever much love to you,
      with utmost gratitude ♡❤♡

      Elimina
  4. Well, there seems to be no end to the creativity in taxation in history and today! I can't imagine a tax on clocks and soap - but then again, we have a sales tax here that includes most things except food, unless eaten in a restaurant! If only we all knew what happened to all the money collected.....History repeats itself. Sending hugs to my dear friend xo Karen

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Karen
      taxation has always existed so as it is true that people has never knew where the money collected has gone, for sure !

      May your weekend be filled with love and wonder,
      sending blessings to you with so much thankfulness ⊰✽*✽⊱

      Elimina
  5. Mi hai messa al corrente di molte cose di cui ignoravo l' esistenza. Sapevo di alcune tasse ma non di molte altre. Grazie per avermi nuovamente allietata con i tuoi argomenti curiosi ed interessanti
    Bacioni Alessandra

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Alessandra
      grazie per le tue parole di entusiasmo, carissima, allietano la mia giornata da poco cominciata !

      Con un forte abbraccio ti auguro un dolcissimo sabato d'autunno, che sia romantico e speciale come te •♥•♥•♥•

      Elimina
  6. muito interessante seu post !!
    é incrível os absurdos de taxação do passado e nos dias de hoje também !!
    desejo a você e sua família um maravilhoso fim de semana !!
    grande abraço.
    :o)

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Kr.Eliane
      muito obrigada pela carinhosa visita e pelas belas palavras, desejo a você também um bom fim de semana !

      ♡ஐ♡ Beijos ♡ஐ♡

      Elimina
  7. Che curiose notizie!Un abbraccio cara e buon fine settimana!Bacioni,Rosetta

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Rosetta
      sono davvero molto lieta di aver catturato la tua curiosità, carissima, grazie !

      Ti giunga gradito il mio pù forte abbraccio con il quale contraccambio il tuo e ti auguro un weekend colmo di serenità ♥∗✿∗♥

      Elimina
  8. The concept has its merits, the money collected to be used for infrastructure, education, parks and the like. But somehow it seems the poor always bears the biggest burden when in fact, they have the greatest need. Alas, the system has been broken a long time "give to Caesar what is Caesars!" it's not likely to be fixed anytime soon. Thank God for people of compassion, like you my dear. And thank you for such an interesting post!

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ June
      it is I who want to thank you, dearest, precious friend of mine, when I welcome you here you always make my day and put me in high spirits, you're just a ray of sun on this page of mine, blessed be !

      Hope your weekend be as Beautiful as you, dearie,
      I'm sending hugs & ever much love across the many miles ಌ•❤•ಌ

      Elimina
  9. Liebe Daniela,
    interessanter Post. Mancher Geschichteunterricht wäre unterhaltsamer und fesselnder, wenn solche Themen mehr behandelt würden. Mit Zeitgeschichten und Bildern.
    Danke dafür!
    Alles Liebe,
    Manuela

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Manuela
      you're always so heartily welcome dearest, precious friend, your interest and your love for ancient times honour me and bless my heart, thank you !

      Hope you're having a most beautiful evening ever,
      I'm sending much love to you,
      with esteem and gratitude

      Herzliche Grüßen, geliebter Freundin ༺♡❀♡༻

      Elimina
  10. Dear Daniela,

    I enjoyed your interesting post and yes, always the taxes. Thanks for sharing this history.
    Have a great Sunday dear friend
    Hugs
    Carolyn

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Carolyn
      I am so very happy to welcome you this morning, dearest friend !

      Thanking you most sincerely for visiting and for appreciating this post of mine,
      I'm sending blessings on your days to come ❥

      Elimina
  11. Oh cara Daniela ma anche questo tuo post è davvero così interessante! Qualcosa però mi dice che questa non sia una prerogativa dell'epoca georgiana. Anzi speriamo proprio che nessuno dei nostri politici prenda spunto, eh?!
    Un grandissimo abbraccio e buona domenica pomeriggio in questo fine ottobre (ahimè per noi marchigian-umbri di terremoto grave)
    Susanna

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Susanna
      no, speriamo davvero di non fornire spunti a chi già ne ha da vendere !

      In questi giorni ti sono tanto vicina, con il pensiero e con il cuore, sono giorni travagliati e di preoccupazione per voi e per noi tutti ... spero che tu ed i tuoi cari non abbiate subito danni durante le scosse che hanno dilaniato ancora una volta la nostra splendida terra e le vostre regioni ...

      Ti abbraccio forte, con il cuore colmo di speranza ✿⊱╮

      Elimina
  12. Dani this post was filled with such interesting information! I had no idea such taxes were on the books at one time. Have a lovely weekend.

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Decor To Adore
      I so appreciate your visit and kind words of interest and amusement, dearest Laura !

      Thinking of you and sending wishes for a peaceful and beauty-filled new week, with much gratitude ♥♡♥

      Elimina
  13. And so, things back then were not much different than they are today!!! :-)
    I loved reading this, Dany. Especially the hair powder tax!
    As always, it is such a treat to visit you here.

    I have been thinking of you and your country ever since I read the news this morning. I hope that you and yours are safe, sweet friend.

    xo.

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Lisa
      we're living very far from the area hit by the earthquake, we're living in the northern part of Italy, but for sure we're grieving all the victims and the damages that our poor land once more is counting ... !

      Thank you for your kind words of concern and for your amusement, filling my heart in this evening of festive day, we're celebrating All Saints, today ...

      May your week just begun bring much joy to you, dearie,
      sending all my love across the many miles ⊰✽*✽⊱

      Elimina
  14. America wanted independence from Britain for such silly taxes that were destroying people's lives.
    But now we have silly taxes of our own! LOL.
    Wonderful and interesting post.
    You teach us so much Dany.
    Hugs

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ annie
      I always welcome you with such a inner joy, dearest Friend !
      You're right, History teaches us that America wanted her independence just for that reason .. but as you say, taxes are 'our companions' always and everywhere !

      Hope your week is off to a good start
      I'm sending blessings of jopy on your days to come,
      with utmost thankfulness ༺♡❀♡༻

      Elimina
  15. Shhhhh....speriamo non ti sentano i politici, secondo me
    non ci sono ancora arrivati, ma pian pianino faremo la stessa fine.
    Un altro evviva alla Regina Vittoria!!
    Un bacione mia dolcissima e scusami se latito, ma ultimamente
    sono intollerante al Pc, speriamo passi!
    Love Susy ♥

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Susy
      sì, un sentito evviva per la Regina del Popolo !
      Sai che sono felicissima di avere tue notizie, mia cara, da giorni mi riprometto di chiamarti ma in un batter d'occhio mi ritrovo a sera ... il cambio dell'ora mi ha lasciata ancora alterata la percezione del tempo, sono confusa ... tornando a noi, mi preoccupava non incontrarti sul web, anche se devo ammettere che in questo periodo anche io ci sono davvero molto di rado e per pochissimo tempo ... lavori autunnali ;) !

      Ti abbraccio forte forte e non peocuparti, capitano periodi in cui ci si sente più attive ed energiche e non si ha voglia di star sedute ... le giornate sono troppo corte, vedrai che passa ...

      Un bacio grande grande grande ❥

      Elimina
  16. Oh Dani this post did make me smile!! So many ridiculous taxes! They must have had fun thinking them all up.
    Have a wonderful healthy November with hugs from us :)x

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Prunella
      ... but for sure it wasn't fun at all for poor people to pay all them ... they hadn't to pay just for breathing ツ !

      So very grateful for your words of enjoyment,
      I'm wishing you all my best for your week just begun,
      may this new month bring much serenity to you and yours •♥•♥•♥•

      Elimina
  17. Very interesting tax history ♥

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Summer
      thanks most sincerely for your lovely words of appreciation, sweet friend !

      May your day be blessed with joy ✿*✿

      Elimina
  18. Well, it's for certain: TAXES will always be a part of our lives! How absurd some of those are!

    Dearest, sweetest Dany, hello! HOW ARE YOU? I want to thank you so much for coming to visit my blog post. It makes me happy to see people are still blogging and visiting. I hope your work is going well. You teach, correct? So do I.

    May your autumnal season bring you much joy and peace. Much love, Anita

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Anita
      it's always such a delight to welcome you here, darling friend, your visits always make my day !

      As for my work, yes, I also am a teacher, so my time here is so very precious, as soon as I have a few minutes I come to my pc to stay together with you !

      Wishing you too a most wonderful autumn ever,
      may your season too be blessed with joy and wonder ಌ•❤•ಌ

      Elimina
  19. Dany,
    This was so interesting to read. We really don't have it so bad!!! It's surprising they didn't tax the air that they breathed!! I haven't been to visit for a while so I have some catching up to do. I'm sure I've missed so much! I always learn something from you that I didn't know....thank you for sharing your knowledge with us! Xo linda

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Linda
      you're right, dearest friend, actually we don't have it so bad, after all ツ

      Don't worry for the posts you haven't read yet, they're always here, and we happen that our life keeps us most of our time, that's quite normal for us all, I suppose ...

      Hope you're having a beautiful autumnal week,
      I'm wishing you all my best for your days to come,
      with so much thankfulness ♥♡♥

      Elimina
  20. What a lovely post..and, being a great-grandmother, I think my grands and greats are already seeing so much difference from my generation...I've sure seen a lot of changes in my life...I've enjoyed learning more about taxes in the past.
    xoxo

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ bj
      I really cannot believe it, you're a great-grandmother... but you're still so young, my darling, your posts seem written by a teenager !

      So very happy to have you here, since you always bring the sunshine with you, I'm sending my dearest love across the many miles separating us, in the hope that it might reach you, sweet friend ღ❀ღ

      Elimina
  21. Well, now over here, we just have sales tax -- which is on just about everything! It's fascinating to see the various levies that were used in the long ago. I really had no idea! As always, such a fun post and so good to catch up!

    RispondiElimina
  22. A quanto pare una volta era ancora peggio......(o no!?)
    Grazie cara Daniela,mi fai scoprire sempre cose nuove.
    UN bacio
    Anto

    RispondiElimina

I WHOLEHEARTEDLY THANK YOU FOR YOUR THOUGHTS AND WORDS, SO PRECIOUS TO ME.